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Time trends in European average temperature anomalies, 1655–2017

Luis A. Gil-Alana*, Carmen Lafuente

*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the analysis of the time trends for the European average temperature anomalies for the period from 1655 to 2017 using a dataset that is based on the Central England Temperatures (CET) and other meteorological stations. The results indicate that the series display long memory behavior and based on this and using recursive methods, we find that the time trend becomes statistically significant when incorporating the data from 2010 onwards suggesting the importance of the last few years in the claim for warming. This last result, however, should be taken with caution noting that it may be a consequence of the statistical method employed in the paper.