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Influences of atmospheric circulation patterns on interannual variability of winter precipitation over the northern part of the Korean Peninsula

Sang-Il Jong, Kum-Chol Om*, Yon-I Pak

*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of atmospheric circulation indices on winter precipitation over the northern part of the Korean Peninsula (WP-NPKP) during the period of 1949–2020. For this, we calculated the correlation coefficients between WP-NPKP based on 37 weather stations and the Siberian High (SH) and the Aleutian Low (AL), which are thought to dominate the winter weather systems over the study area. We chose those atmospheric circulation indices which are closely connected with the interannual variability of WP-NPKP and explained their possible mechanisms. To identify circulation patterns which most strongly correlated with WP-NPKP, one-point simultaneous correlation maps were created using the Pearson correlation analysis and their monotonic trends were tested by Kendall-tau method. Our findings show that the interannual variability of WP-NPKP had a closer connection with the difference of area-averaged climate variable anomalies over any two areas than these anomalies. Increased AL index minus decreased SH index has some correlation with winter rainfall, the higher sea level pressure over ocean, rather than that over land, was favorable for the transport of moisture toward the study area. Also, the indices which describe differences of air temperature anomalies at lower and middle latitudes had a relatively high correlation with WP-NPKP, and the difference indices of area-averaged zonal and meridional wind anomalies indicated a considerable influence on winter rainfall. Their possible mechanisms were discussed comparing with other studies which treated the winter climate over the East Asia region.