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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

    DAO prepress abstract   -  DOI:

    Streptococcus iniae associated mass marine fish kill off Western Australia

    Erina J. Young*, Jo Bannister, Nicky B. Buller, Rebecca J. Vaughan-Higgins, Nahiid S. Stephens, Scott D. Whiting, Lian Yeap, Terrence L. Miller, Kristin S. Warren

    *Corresponding author:

    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus iniae causes high mortality in cultured and wild fish stocks globally. Since the first report in captive Amazon river dolphins Inia geoffrensis in 1976, it has emerged in finfish across all continents except Antarctica. In March 2016, an estimated 17000 fish were observed dead and dying on beaches and offshore along a remote 70km stretch of the Kimberley coastline north of Broome, Western Australia. Affected species included finfish (lionfish Pterois volitans, angelfish Pomacanthus sp., stripey snapper Lutjanus carponotatus, sand bass Psammoperca waigiensis, yellowtail grunter Amniataba caudavittata, damselfish Pomacentridae sp.), flatback sea turtles Natator depressus, and olive (Aipysurus laevis) and black-ringed (Hydrelaps darwinensis) sea snakes. Moribund fish collected during the event exhibited exophthalmia and abnormal behaviour, such as spiralling on the surface or within the water column. Subsequent histopathological examination of two fish species revealed bacterial septicaemia with chains of Gram-positive cocci seen in multiple organs, and within brain tissue. Streptococcus iniae was isolated and identified by bacterial culture, species-specific PCR, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) and biochemical testing. This is the first report of S. iniae associated with a major multi-species marine fish kill in Australia. Extreme weather events in the region including a marked decrease in water temperatures, followed by an extended period of above-average coastal water temperatures, were implicated as stressors potentially contributing to this outbreak.