MEPS prepress abstract  -  DOI:

Phytoplankton as a principal diet for callianassid shrimp larvae in coastal waters, estimated from laboratory rearing and stable isotope analysis

Yu Umezawa*, Akio Tamaki, Toshikazu Suzuki, Seiji Takeuchi, Chikage Yoshimizu, Ichiro Tayasu


ABSTRACT: The field diet of meroplanktonic larvae of decapod crustaceans is poorly known, despite standard use of microzooplankton as food in laboratory culture. Using callianassid shrimp (Nihonotrypaea harmandi) larvae collected from a 65-m deep inner-shelf location off mid-western Kyushu, Japan, in June−August 2012−2013 and mass-reared in the laboratory, phytoplankton-based diet through larval development (zoeae I−VI to decapodid) was demonstrated. When the pure-cultured diatom (Chaetoceros gracilis) was fed to zoeae, survival rate to decapodids was 3.4−3.9% in 26−40 d at 22°C, which was comparable to previous rearing results for zoeae fed microzooplankton. Trophic enrichment factors (TEFs) from stable isotope (SI) analysis of zoeal whole-body tissue in the laboratory were 2.0‰ for δ13C and 1.9‰ for δ15N. In the field water column, diatoms dominated the nano- to micro-sized plankton, accounting for 38−81% in biovolume, which was followed by heterotrophic protists. The trophic position (TP) estimated from amino-acid-specific δ15N values for the field-collected zoeae VI was 2.1 (TPGlu/Phe) or 2.7 (TPAla/Phe), suggesting that those zoeae fed on mixtures of phytoplankton and heterotrophs including protists. Bulk SI analyses were performed for particulate organic matter (POM; proxy for phytoplankton), microzooplankton (mainly calanoid copepods), and shrimp zoeae, to elucidate the diet of larvae in the water column. Shift in SI from fresh to degraded POM was determined through the incubation of field-collected POM. Based on this shift during degradation and larval TEFs, phytoplankton and their sinking detritus with heterotrophic protists were estimated to be the principal diet for those larvae residing mostly below the chlorophyll maximum layer.