AEI 5:255-270 (2014)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/aei00109

Ecosystem goods and services from Manila clam culture in Puget Sound: a modelling analysis

Camille Saurel1, João G. Ferreira2,*, Dan Cheney3, Andy Suhrbier3, Bill Dewey4, Jonathan Davis5, Jeff Cordell6

1Danish Shellfish Center, DTUAqua, Øroddevej 80, 7900 Nykøbing Mors, Denmark
2Dept. Environmental Science and Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon,
2829-516 Monte de Caparica, Portugal
3Pacific Shellfish Institute, 509 12th Ave SE, Olympia, WA 98501, USA
4Chuckanut Shellfish Inc., 704 E. Hiawatha Blvd., Shelton, WA 98584, USA
5Baywater Inc, 15425 Smoland Lane NE, Bainbridge Island, WA, 98110-1040 USA
6University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fisheries Sciences (SAFS), Box 355020, Seattle, WA 98195-5020, USA
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: The carrying capacity of a 2.4 ha Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum farm, using mechanised harvesting in North Puget Sound, WA, USA, was determined by means of an ecological model; the results were also scaled to Puget Sound as a whole. An individual Manila clam growth model was developed, calibrated and validated for the commercial farm, together with a macro- algal model to simulate fouling of the predator nets by seaweeds. Both models are based on our previously developed generic frameworks for bivalves (AquaShell) and seaweeds (AquaFrond). For the most part, equations are taken or adapted from the literature and parameterised for the studied site. The individual models were incorporated into the Farm Aquaculture Resource Man- agement (FARM) model to simulate the production cycle, environmental effects and economic optimisation of culture. Both the individual and farm-scale models are built using object-oriented programming. Potential effects of clam production on seaweed growth were analysed and found to be about 10% above background. The FARM model was also used to classify the farm area with respect to its eutrophication status, by applying the Assessment of Estuarine Trophic Status (ASSETS) model. Farm production ranging from 32 to 45 t of clams per year is well reproduced by the model. Harvest yield is very sensitive to mortality, and profitability is very sensitive to seed costs. Manila clam culture provides a potential nutrient credit trading value of over US $41000 per year, over 1000 Population-Equivalents (PEQ, i.e. loading from humans or equivalent loading from agriculture or industry) with respect to eutrophication control. The potential income would add 21% to the annual profit ($194900) from clam sales. A scaling exercise to the whole of Puget Sound is in reasonable agreement with declared production (difference of 16%), and suggests that clams provide a significant ecosystem service, of the order of 90000 PEQ per year.


KEY WORDS: Manila clam · Aquaculture · Sustainability · Ecological model · Culture practice · FARM model


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Cite this article as: Saurel C, Ferreira JG, Cheney D, Suhrbier A, Dewey B, Davis J, Cordell J (2014) Ecosystem goods and services from Manila clam culture in Puget Sound: a modelling analysis. Aquacult Environ Interact 5:255-270. https://doi.org/10.3354/aei00109

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