DAO 104:45-57 (2013)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02581

Vaccination strategies to protect goldfish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila infection

V. Thanga Viji, K. Deepa, S. Velmurugan, M. Birdilla Selva Donio, J. Adlin Jenifer, M. Michael Babu, T. Citarasu*

Centre for Marine Science and Technology, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Rajakkamangalam, Kanyakumari District, Tamilnadu 629502, India
*Corresponding author. Email:

ABSTRACT: Ornamental goldfish Carassius auratus were treated with whole cell (WC), extracellular product (ECP), outer membrane protein (OMP) and biofilm (BF) vaccines developed from the virulent Aeromonas hydrophila (AHV1; GenBank HQ331525.1) with and without the immunoadjuvant Asparagus racemosus. On various days post-vaccination (dpv), the treated fish were challenged with virulent A. hydrophila. These fish were monitored for survival, growth, specific bacterial reduction, and biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. C. auratus attained 100% mortality within 7 d in non-vaccinated groups, whereas the vaccines helped to significantly (p ≤ 0.001) increase survival after 25 and 50 dpv. The vaccines with immunoadjuvant (ECP2, OMP2 and BF2 treatments) helped to reduce the Aeromonas load after the challenge, and serum albumin, globulin and protein levels were significantly (p < 0.01) improved in the OMP2- and BF2-treated groups. Haemoglobin and red blood cell counts were also significantly improved (p < 0.05) in the vaccinated groups compared to the control group. Additionally, haemagglutination occurred at the 1:12 dilution level in the vaccine plus immunoadjuvant-treated groups. Supplementing the vaccines with immunoadjuvant helped to improve phagocytosis to 54.07%, serum bactericidal activity to 14.6% and the albumin:globulin ratio to 7.6% in BF2 after 50 dpv. Its positive effect significantly (p < 0.05) increased in vaccinated groups compared to controls. Based on the results, especially with the OMP and BF vaccines, the immunoadjuvant A. racemosus helped to improve the efficiency of the vaccines. This approach will aid in the development of more efficient vaccines against bacterial infections affecting the aquaculture industry.


KEY WORDS: Ornamental fish · Biofilm · Outer membrane protein · OMP · Herbal immunoadjuvants


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Cite this article as: Thanga Viji V, Deepa K, Velmurugan S, Donio MBS, Adlin Jenifer J, Babu MM, Citarasu T (2013) Vaccination strategies to protect goldfish Carassius auratus against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Dis Aquat Org 104:45-57. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02581

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