DAO 107:77-81 (2013)  -  doi:10.3354/dao02670

NOTE
Efficacy of common disinfectants and terbinafine in inactivating the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in culture

Kienan K. Gold1, Porsha D. Reed1, David A. Bemis1, Debra L. Miller1,2, Matthew J. Gray2, Marcy J. Souza1,* 

1College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA
2Center for Wildlife Health, Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA
*Corresponding author. Email:

ABSTRACT: Use of disinfectants by biologists, veterinarians, and zoological facilities is a standard biosecurity procedure to prevent contamination and the spread of pathogens. We tested the efficacy of 5 disinfectants and 1 anti-fungal treatment, at 1 and 5 min contact durations, in inactivating Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) grown on tryptone media. Our study focused on concentrations of disinfectants known to inactivate ranaviruses, which can be found at the same sites as Bd and can concurrently infect amphibians. Disinfectants tested were chlorhexidine gluconate (0.25, 0.75, and 2%), Pro-San (0.19, 0.35, and 0.47%), Virkon S (1%), household bleach (0.2, 1, and 3%), and Xtreme Mic (5%). The anti-fungal was terbinafine HCl at 0.005, 0.05, 0.1, and 1 mg ml–1. Inactivation of Bd was determined by microscopic evaluation of zoospore motility and growth of colony mass after 14 d. All disinfectants were effective at inactivating zoospore motility and colony growth of Bd at all concentrations and both contact times; however, terbinafine HCl inactivated Bd at only the highest concentration tested (1 mg ml–1) and 5 min duration. Thus, a minimum of 0.25% chlorhexidine gluconate, 0.19% Pro-San, 1% Virkon, 0.2% bleach, and 5% Xtreme Mic with 1 min contact was sufficient to inactivate Bd. Also, terbinafine HCl (1 mg ml–1) with a 5 min contact time might be effective in treating amphibians infected with Bd. Based on this study and previously published findings, 0.75% Nolvasan, 1% Virkon S, and 3% bleach with 1 min contact are sufficient to inactivate both Bd and ranaviruses.


KEY WORDS: Chytrid fungus · Amphibian · Chlorhexidine · Sodium hypochlorite · Pro-San · Virkon · Ranaviruses


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Cite this article as: Gold KK, Reed PD, Bemis DA, Miller DL, Gray MJ, Souza MJ (2013) Efficacy of common disinfectants and terbinafine in inactivating the growth of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in culture. Dis Aquat Org 107:77-81

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