DAO 113:103-111 (2015)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02831

Morphological and genetic identification of Anisakis paggiae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima from Brazilian waters

Maria Isabel N. Di Azevedo1, Marcelo Knoff2, Vitor L. Carvalho3, Wildon N. Mello4,5, Eduardo J. Lopes Torres4,5, Delir C. Gomes2, Alena M. Iñiguez1,*

1LABTRIP, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, 21045-900 RJ, Brazil
2Laboratório de Helmintos Parasitos de Vertebrados, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, 21045-900 RJ, Brazil
3Associação de Pesquisa e Preservação de Ecossistemas Aquáticos—AQUASIS, Caucaia, 61627-010 CE, Brazil
4Laboratório de Helmintologia Roberto Lascasas Porto, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, UERJ, Rio de Janeiro, 20511-070 RJ, Brazil
5Laboratório de Ultraestrutura Celular Hertha Meyer, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho and Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Biologia Estrutural e Bioimagens, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902 RJ, Brazil
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Anisakid nematodes have been identified in a wide variety of fish and marine mammal species. In Brazil, Anisakis physeteris, A. insignis, A. typica, A. nascetti, and those of the A. simplex complex have been reported infecting fishes and cetaceans. In this study, specimens collected from a dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded on the northeastern coast of Brazil were identified through morphological and genetic analyses as A. paggiae. Anisakids were examined through differential interference contrast light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological and morphometric analysis revealed that these specimens belonged to Anisakis sp. clade II and more specifically to A. paggiae, exhibiting a violin-shaped ventriculus and 3 denticulate caudal plates, which are taxonomic characters considered unique to this species. Genetic analysis based on the mtDNA cox2 gene confirmed our identification of A. paggiae. Phylogenetic trees using both maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods revealed a strongly supported monophyletic clade (bootstrap support = 100%) with all available A. paggiae sequences. Integrative taxonomic analysis allowed the identification of A. paggiae for the first time in Brazilian waters, providing new data about their geographical distribution. Moreover, here we present the first SEM images of this species.


KEY WORDS: Cetacean · Parasitic nematode · Scanning electron microscopy · Light microscopy · mtDNA cox2 · Brazil


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Cite this article as: Di Azevedo MIN, Knoff M, Carvalho VL, Mello WN, Lopes Torres EJ, Gomes DC, Iñiguez AM (2015) Morphological and genetic identification of Anisakis paggiae (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in dwarf sperm whale Kogia sima from Brazilian waters. Dis Aquat Org 113:103-111. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao02831

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