DAO 39:135-141 (2000)  -  doi:10.3354/dao039135

In vitro studies on optimal requirements for the growth of Spironucleus vortens, an intestinal parasite of the freshwater angelfish

Somboon Sangmaneedet, Stephen A. Smith*

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Pathobiology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA
*Corresponding author: E-mail:

ABSTRACT: Spironucleus vortens were cultivated in either an artificial medium at different temperatures, or in medium at various pH conditions or supplemented with different bile concentrations at 25°C. Temperature, pH and bile requirements for the optimal growth of the parasite were determined. Parasites multiplied quickly at 28 and 31°C and reached maximum numbers on Day 4 of cultivation, whereafter they did not survive. At 25°C, parasites survived longer than those at 28 and 31°C with no difference in multiplication rate during the exponential phase. The longest survival period was seen at 22°C, although the growth rate of the parasite was not as high as those at 25°C. At a higher temperature of 37°C, no parasites were observed alive after the second day of cultivation. Optimal pH range for the parasite¹s growth was 6.5 to 7.5, with the highest cell number at pH 7.5. Parasites survived longest (15 d) at pH 6.0, although the maximum number of cells was lower than those at the optimal pH. Parasites were dead within 24 h at pH levels above 8.5 or below 5.5. All cultures supplemented with either bovine or fish bile yielded numbers of parasites lower than cultures with no bile. In addition, parasite growth was significantly suppressed in medium supplemented with higher concentrations of bile. These results indicate that the optimal condition for the in vitro cultivation of S. vortens is 25°C and pH 6.5 to 7.5 without supplementation with bile.


KEY WORDS: Hexamitid · Diplomonad · Spironucleus vortens · Angelfish · Pterophyllum scalare · In vitro · Cultivation · Protozoa


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