DAO 82:171-178 (2008)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/dao01998

Stability of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in freshwater and seawater at various temperatures

Laura M. Hawley, Kyle A. Garver*

Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Pacific Biological Station, 3190 Hammond Bay Road, Nanaimo, British Columbia V9T 6N7, Canada
*Corresponding author. Email:

ABSTRACT: Three North American and 1 European viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) isolates taken from either a marine, freshwater, or estuarine host were assessed for survivability in raw and filtered freshwater and seawater at temperatures ranging from 4 to 30°C. All 4 isolates were substantially more stable in freshwater than in seawater, and higher survival was observed at lower water temperatures. The average time required for 99.9% inactivation of VHSV in raw freshwater at 15°C was 13 d, while in raw seawater VHSV was inactivated within an average of 4 d. No consistent correlation was observed between the origin and the stability of the virus isolates. Freshwater isolates were not always the most stable in freshwater; similarly, seawater isolates were not consistently more stable in seawater. Virus survival was greatly enhanced in filtered freshwater with some virus strains remaining infective after 1 yr at 4°C.


KEY WORDS: Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus · Virus inactivation · Great Lakes VHSV · Genotype IVb · Virus survival · Environmental factors/effects


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Cite this article as: Hawley LM, Garver KA (2008) Stability of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in freshwater and seawater at various temperatures. Dis Aquat Org 82:171-178. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao01998

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