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AEI 12:91-103 (2020)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/aei00352

Influence of Manila clam aquaculture on rates and partitioning of organic carbon oxidation in sediment of Keunso Bay, Yellow Sea

Sung-Han Kim1,3, Sung-Uk An1, Won-Chan Lee2, Jae Seong Lee3, Jung-Ho Hyun1,*

1Department of Marine Science and Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588, Republic of Korea
2Environmental Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, 216 Gijanghaean-ro, Gijang-eup, Busan Metropolitan City 46083, Republic of Korea
3Marine Environmental Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, 385 Haeyang-ro, Yengdo-gu, Busan Metropolitan City 49111, Republic of Korea
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of Manila clam aquaculture on the rates and pathways of anaerobic organic carbon (OC) oxidation in highly bioturbated (HB) and poorly bioturbated (PB) sediment in Keunso Bay, Yellow Sea. Due to the labile organic matter supply via sediment reworking by Manila clams, the anaerobic OC oxidation rate in HB sediment (38.8 mmol m-2 d-1) was ~1.5 times higher than that in PB sediment (26.8 mmol m-2 d-1). Microbial Fe(III) reduction (FeR) dominated OC oxidation pathways in HB sediment, comprising 55 to 76% of anaerobic OC oxidation, whereas sulfate reduction (SR) was the dominant oxidation pathway in PB sediment, accounting for up to 92% of anaerobic OC oxidation. Despite higher anaerobic respiration rates at the HB site, concentrations of NH4+, PO43-, oxalate-extractable iron (Fe(II)(oxal)), and total reduced inorganic sulfur were 2 to 3 times lower in HB than in PB sediment. Conversely, the concentration of reactive Fe(III)(oxal) at the HB site (2243 mmol m-2) exceeded that at the PB site (1127 mmol m-2) by a factor of 2. These results indicate that bioturbation by Manila clams enhances the re-oxidation processes of reduced metabolites in the sediment, thereby prohibiting SR and promoting FeR. Overall, the results suggest that aquaculture activities of Manila clams shift the dominant OC oxidation pathways in sediment from SR to FeR, which generates relatively oxidized and less sulfidic environments.


KEY WORDS: Aquaculture · Manila clam · Bioturbation · Organic carbon oxidation · Sulfate reduction · Iron reduction


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Cite this article as: Kim SH, An SU, Lee WC, Lee JS, Hyun JH (2020) Influence of Manila clam aquaculture on rates and partitioning of organic carbon oxidation in sediment of Keunso Bay, Yellow Sea. Aquacult Environ Interact 12:91-103. https://doi.org/10.3354/aei00352

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