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Diseases of Aquatic Organisms

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DAO 105:163-174 (2013)  -  DOI:

CyHV-3: the third cyprinid herpesvirus

Michael Gotesman1, Julia Kattlun1, Sven M. Bergmann2, Mansour El-Matbouli1,*

1Clinical Division of Fish Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria
2Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Institute of Infectology, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany
*Corresponding author. Email:

ABSTRACT: Common carp (including ornamental koi carp) Cyprinus carpio L. are ecologically and economically important freshwater fish in Europe and Asia. C. carpio have recently been endangered by a third cyprinid herpesvirus, known as cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), the etiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), which causes significant morbidity and mortality in koi and common carp. Clinical and pathological signs include epidermal abrasions, excess mucus production, necrosis of gill and internal organs, and lethargy. KHVD has decimated major carp populations in Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan, Germany, Canada, and the USA, and has been listed as a notifiable disease in Germany since 2005, and by the World Organisation for Animal Health since 2007. KHVD is exacerbated in aquaculture because of the relatively high host stocking density, and CyHV-3 may be concentrated by filter-feeding aquatic organisms. CyHV-3 is taxonomically grouped within the family Alloherpesviridae, can be propagated in a number of cell lines, and is active at a temperature range of 15 to 28°C. Three isolates originating from Japan (KHV-J), USA (KHV-U), and Israel (KHV-I) have been sequenced. CyHV-3 has a 295 kb genome with 156 unique open reading frames and replicates in the cell nucleus, and mature viral particles are 170 to 200 nm in diameter. CyHV-3 can be detected by multiple PCR-based methods and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several modes of immunization have been developed for KHVD; however, fish immunized with either vaccine or wild-type virus may become carriers for CyHV-3. There is no current treatment for KHVD.

KEY WORDS: Aquaculture · KHV · Koi herpesvirus disease · KHVD · Skin hemorrhages · Virus detection · Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay · ELISA

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Cite this article as: Gotesman M, Kattlun J, Bergmann SM, El-Matbouli M (2013) CyHV-3: the third cyprinid herpesvirus. Dis Aquat Org 105:163-174.

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