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ESR 40:243-256 (2019)  -  DOI: https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00996

Green and hawksbill turtle abundance and population dynamics at foraging grounds in Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands

Frank F. Rivera-Milán1,2,*, Mabel Nava1, Kaj Schut1, Fernando Simal1,2,3

1Sea Turtle Conservation Bonaire, Kaya Korona 53, Kralendijk, Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands
2WILDCONSCIENCE, Kaya Platina 42, Kralendijk, Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands
3CARMABI Foundation, Piscaderabaai z/n, Willemstad, Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: Green turtles Chelonia mydas and hawksbill turtles Eretmochelys imbricata are negatively impacted by natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Unknown numbers of turtles are killed annually in the coastal waters of Bonaire and Klein Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands. We used N-mixture models, conventional distance sampling and the multiple Lincoln-Petersen method to estimate abundance from transect-count and net-capture surveys. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian generalised linear models were used to assess trends in annual abundance in 2003-2018, and a Bayesian state-space logistic model was developed to generate the posterior distributions of population parameters and make abundance predictions for 2019-2030. Mean ± SE annual abundance was 555 ± 149 green turtles (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles = 337, 943) and 70 ± 13 hawksbill turtles (49, 101), and there were no trends in western Bonaire and Klein Bonaire in 2003-2018. Mean annual abundance was 348 ± 135 green turtles (171, 731) and there was a positive trend inside Lac Bay, southeast Bonaire, 2003-2018. Green turtles have higher population growth rate and carrying capacity, and therefore can sustain higher human-induced mortality than hawksbill turtles. However, under low mortality rates (<0.100), both species can fluctuate stably between the lower and upper limits of the carrying capacity. The methodology implemented can be adapted to estimate sea turtle abundance, monitor and model their population dynamics, and assess the negative impact of human-induced mortality in other Caribbean islands.


KEY WORDS: Chelonia mydas · Eretmochelys imbricata · Abundance · N-mixture model · Distance sampling · Multiple Lincoln-Petersen method · Generalised linear model · Bayesian state-space logistic model


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Cite this article as: Rivera-Milán FF, Nava M, Schut K, Simal F (2019) Green and hawksbill turtle abundance and population dynamics at foraging grounds in Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands. Endang Species Res 40:243-256. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr00996

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