Inter-Research > MEPS > v693 > p183-201  
Marine Ecology Progress Series

via Mailchimp

MEPS 693:183-201 (2022)  -  DOI:

Changes in functioning of the largest coastal North Sea flatfish nursery, the Wadden Sea, over the past half century

Henk W. van der Veer1,*, Ingrid Tulp2, Johannes IJ. Witte1, Suzanne S. H. Poiesz1,3,5, Loes J. Bolle2,4

1NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Coastal Systems, PO Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg Texel, The Netherlands
2Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen Marine Research, PO Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden, The Netherlands
3Faculty of Science and Engineering, Groningen Institute of Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, PO Box 11103, 9700 CC Groningen, The Netherlands
4Nouvelle-Aquitaine Eco Studies, 23400 Saint-Moreil, France
5Present address: Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen Marine Research, PO Box 77, 4400 AB Yerseke, The Netherlands
*Corresponding author:

ABSTRACT: The international Wadden Sea is an important flatfish nursery. Information from the Dutch Wadden Sea indicates that the flatfish nursery function of the area has been affected during the last decades. Increased seawater temperature has affected settling, habitat suitability for and growth performance of the various flatfish species. Settling of plaice, flounder and to a lesser extent sole larvae occurs earlier nowadays. In the 1960s, 0-, I-, II- and III-group plaice were present, but since 2000, II-group has disappeared and densities of I-group have decreased. For juvenile flounder, II-group almost disappeared, and for dab, a decline in densities of all age groups was observed from the 1990s onwards. Summer temperatures exceed the optimum for the cold-water species (plaice, flounder and dab) with increasing frequency, level and duration. Only for 0-group sole, the period with optimal growth conditions has become longer and has resulted in increased growth. Mortality rates in 0-group plaice have increased, coinciding with an increase in water temperatures and an increase in the abundance of predators. The decrease in density of juvenile plaice and dab in the Wadden Sea has not affected recruitment to North Sea stocks, suggesting that other areas have taken over part of the nursery function. The predicted increase in seawater temperature in the next decades will continue to improve the conditions for sole. The temperature tolerance of plaice and dab and to a lesser extent flounder will further reduce their scope for growth and may ultimately result in their disappearance from the Wadden Sea.

KEY WORDS: Wadden Sea · Nursery function · Juvenile flatfish · Long-term trends · Climate change · Species composition · Growth · Mortality

Full text in pdf format
Cite this article as: van der Veer HW, Tulp I, Witte JIJ, Poiesz SSH, Bolle LJ (2022) Changes in functioning of the largest coastal North Sea flatfish nursery, the Wadden Sea, over the past half century. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 693:183-201.

Export citation
Share:    Facebook - - linkedIn

 Previous article